New PDF release: A Grammar of Lango

By Noonan, Michael

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Additional info for A Grammar of Lango

Sample text

Cooked it' 'to cook it' In Sec. 1, it was noted that [η] does not occur in environment C, that is, it does not occur intervocalically except root initially — we find no [q] corresponding to the [d] in [Tatedo] above. ' Ί prevented it' 'to prevent it' Vowels are regularly nasalized before and after nasal stops, but the nasalization in [7ageo] is more pronounced than the slight nasalization in the corresponding vowels in [geq»o] or [g6«q]. e. there is always a sequence like: V $V In fact, fully nasal vowels do not occur in Lango except in V $ V pairs.

This applies to both progressive and regressive harmony: (1) borp + ni dress-2sa -» boqoni s \ ([bcioni]) 'your dress' In fast speech, the domain may increase to two syllables: (2) boqoni 'your dress' This rule supposes the prior application of coalescence (Sec. 6) and contraction (Sec. 2). So, when contraction optionally deletes the stem vowel in (1), resulting in bSg + ni, the only permissible output of the rules (cluster simplification, tone sandhi, vowel harmony) is borjrji not *borjqi. That is, in figuring the domain of vowel harmony, only vowels present on the surface are counted.

A set of minimal pairs is provided below. —ι σ> 00 t^ tO »Ο -"Τ i ΟΟ υ Ι χ/Ι ι •e 0| 300 400 '. 0 500 • ε 600 9 a 700 800 900 Vowel length 27 As the graph shows, the back rounded vowels are bunched together within a very narrow range. The values for fs do not appear to be significant in distinguishing the two sorts of vowels. One additional difference between the two sets has to do with the width of the pharynx. The Class A vowels are produced with an advanced tongue root, which results in a relatively wide pharynx and a lowered larynx; the Class B vowels, on the other hand, have a retracted tongue root resulting in a relatively narrow pharynx and a raised larynx.

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A Grammar of Lango by Noonan, Michael


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